If you're looking to keep things simple, either of these two water treatments should get your mash and sparge pHs in the right ballpark using Madison city water:
You may wonder why I didn't create different treatment regimes for malty and hoppy beers. In my opinion, the popular claim that gypsum (CaSO4) accentuates hop character is total garbage. Because gypsum imparts a sulfury character to beer, I only use it for two purposes:
1. Making beers that taste like they were brewed at Fuller's.
2. Adding calcium when I don't want to add any more chloride (from CaCl2).
If you prefer gypsum over CaCl2, simply replace a given weight of CaCl2 with the same weight of gypsum. I'd probably flip the two values for English ales, but you can use 100% gypsum if you're feeling saucy.
Finally, I add metabisulfite to drive off any chlorine or chloramines (chlorine with ammonia added to make it less volatile) that may have been added to the water by the city. I don't believe Madison uses chloramines, which is good for us, but it's becoming more common and may arrive here someday. Half of a crushed campden tablet is enough to treat ten gallons of water, as is 300 mg of sodium metabisulfite or 350 mg of potassium metabisulfite. If you filter your water with active carbon, you don't need to worry about this at all.
Up next: a basic overview of how water chemistry affects mash pH, which you can read here.